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Immune Disorders

Immune Disorders
Two immune deficiency disorders will be discussed in the following text, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and psoriasis. Pathophysiology, drug therapy, and adverse effects will be discussed. Furthermore, variations in each disease process will also be presented. The purpose of this discussion post is to further understand the disease process of HIV and psoriasis.  
HIV
Human immunodeficiency virus is a viral infection that targets the CD4-positive Th cells, which are needed for the development of plasma cells and T cells. The result of this cell depletion results in a negative immune response. With the immune system suppression, the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is possible (Huether & McCance, 2017), p. 194). 
Drug Therapy
After HIV is diagnosed, the goal of action is to control the virus and prevent the progression to AIDS. Drug therapy is designed to do five things for the patient: suppress the viral load, restore the immune system function, maintain quality of life, prevent HIV related complications, and prevent HIV transmission (Arcangelo, Peterson, Wilbur, & Reinhold, 2017, p. 846). 
Medication regimens have been designed and it is important to note the each patient responds differently. The different classes of drug regimens include: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), nonnucleaoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI), protease inhibitors (PI), fusion inhibitors, integrase trans transfer inhibitors (INSTI), and CCR5 Antagonists. 
When using NRTI drugs such as, Ziagen, Videx, Emtriva, Epivir, Zerit, and Retrovir, it is important to know that they prevent the transcription of RNA into DNA (Arcangelo, Peterson, Wilbur, & Reinhold, 2017, p. 849).
When working with NNRTIs drug such as, Rescriptor, Sustiva, Intelence, Viramune, and Edurant, the drug binds to the reverse transcriptase and prevents the conversion of RNA into DNA Arcangelo, Peterson, Wilbur, & Reinhold, 2017, p. 851).
Protease inhibitors target the cell replication in the later stages. They prevent the development of the polyproteins, which are needed to create new HIV RNA copies. Examples of PIs are Reyataz, Prezista, Lexiva, Crixivan, Kaletra, Viracept, Norvir, Invirase, and Aptivus (Arcangelo, Peterson, Wilbur, & Reinhold, 2017, p. 852).
Fusion inhibitors prevents HIV from entering the cells by blocking the fusion process of the virus to the membrane of the CD4 T cells. Fuzeon is the only available drug from this particular class (Arcangelo, Peterson, Wilbur, & Reinhold, 2017, p. 853).
The INSTIs available for use are Trivicy, Vitekta, and Isentress. These drugs prevent the HIVs DNA  from entering the genome of the host cell. They are often used in conjunction with NRTI drugs (Arcangelo, Peterson, Wilbur, & Reinhold, 2017, p. 853).
The final drug class is the CCR5 Antagonists and Selsentry is the only medication amiable. This medication works on the membrane of CD4 T cells and prevents HIV from entering the cells by blocking the CCR5 receptors (Arcangelo, Peterson, Wilbur, & Reinhold, 2017, p. 854).

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