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FNU Discussion Response Alvaro Navas Furthermore

FNU Discussion Response Alvaro Navas Furthermore

Running head: PEOPLE OF CHINESE AND GUATEMALAN HERITAGE People of Chinese and Guatemalan Heritage Alvaro Navas Florida National University 1 PEOPLE OF CHINESE AND GUATEMALAN HERITAGE 2 People of Chinese and Guatemalan Heritage Although excellent modern medical care is available in the capital city of Guatemala for those who can afford it and even for the indigent, millions of people in the rural areas lack adequate health care and health education. The medical training at San Carlos University includes a field stint for advanced students in rural areas, and often these are the only well-trained medical personnel on duty at village-level governmentrun health clinics. The less well educated have a variety of folk explanations and cures for disease and mental illnesses, including herbal remedies, dietary adjustments, magical formulas, and prayers to Christian saints, local gods, and deceased relatives. Most births in the city occur in hospitals, but some are attended at home by midwives, as is more usual in rural areas. These practitioners learn their skills from other midwives and through government-run courses. For many minor problems, local pharmacists may diagnose, prescribe, and administer remedies, including antibiotics. On the other hand, Underlying philosophies and conceptual frameworks ground Chinese health beliefs. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) emphasizes the universe-human body relationship. Chinese beliefs about health and illness management are holistic, woven into the social and cultural fabric of daily life, conceptualized within the context of yin-yang, hot-cold, and dry-wet balances, as well as qi and

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holism. Another theory the Chinese use is the Meridian Theory, which assumes that any disorder within a meridian or energy pathway generates disharmony along that meridian. For example; maxillary toothache may result from a disorder of the stomach meridian; likewise mandible toothache may result from a PEOPLE OF CHINESE AND GUATEMALAN HERITAGE 3 disorder of the large intestine meridian because the large intestine and the mandible run along the same energy channel .Inadequate sleep or stress affects the meridian involving the stomach and are also believed to cause gum disease Based on the concepts of TCM, the Chinese believe that tooth health depends on the condition of the kidneys. The kidneys determine the condition of the bone, as the bone is filled and nourished by marrow, which is believed to derive from the vital essence of the kidneys. The teeth are considered the odds and ends of the bone. Therefore, problems such as loosening of teeth are considered to be an expression of the imbalance between the two vital forces (yin/yang) in the kidneys. Similarly, the gums are related to the stomach via meridians through which vital forces (yin/yang) move. Gum inflammation is believed to result from intense heat or flaring fire in the stomach .The Chinese tend to use traditional medicine in conjunction with western medicine for minor, well-understood or common health problems; for uncommon or more serious ailments they often seek biomedical treatment .Western medicine is considered good for the treatment of symptoms while Chinese medicine is believed to be more effective in curing the disease .TCM is considered culturally appropriate, holistic, convenient, cost effective, and without side effects. It can be used by people who fear going to the dentist .TCM is also commonly used in response to oral mucosal lesions and periodontal disease .These ideas lead to a strong reliance on self-care, which leads to delay in seeking care according to biomedical dental standards PEOPLE OF CHINESE AND GUATEMALAN HERITAGE 4 How the Health care beliefs affect the delivery of evidence-based health care. Evidence-based practice, like the guidelines and audit model, is designed to apply the findings of research to patients’ medical problems. Evidence-based medicine helps health systems achieve “gains on all three aims at once: care, health, and cost,” Therefore, it’s gaining momentum as a viable model of medical care. If a health care belief affect the delivery of evidence-based health care; the real time date to make care decisions will be affected; transparency, accountability, and value will not improve; quality of care and outcomes will be deteriorate. Nowadays, the advantages of evidence-based practice include better patient outcomes, increased patient safety and improved quality of life. In the past, patients simply received healthcare. Today, patients are healthcare consumers. They demand improved treatments and increased safety. EBP strives to standardize practices, which can deliver more predictable outcomes. The systematic approach of this type of practice and research can result in treatments with improved chances of success. The basis of this practice lies in research that provides reliable information about treatments. Analyzing this information in light of a patient situation can determine the likelihood of a positive result. Evidence-based practice’s patient-centered philosophy addresses the needs of the patient with the goal of more efficient, effective treatment. PEOPLE OF CHINESE AND GUATEMALAN HERITAGE References Goldin, C. “Work and Ideology in the Maya Highlands of Guatemala: Economic Beliefs in the Context of Occupational Change.”Economic Development and Cultural Change41(1):103–123. Kwan SY, Holmes MA. An exploration of oral health beliefs and attitudes of Chinese in West Yorkshire: a qualitative investigation. Health Educ Res. 2015;14:453–460 5 CHINESE AND GUATEMALAN HERITAGE. HEALTHCARE BELIEFS Chinese and Guatemalan Heritage and they Healthcare Beliefs Lisandra Alejo Florida National University Culture in Nursing Professor: Cassandre Millien 02/5/2019 CHINESE AND GUATEMALAN HERITAGE. HEALTHCARE BELIEFS Chinese and Guatemalan are two potent communities living in different parts of the world. Both has different cultural concepts, include those relate with the healthcare beliefs. However the difference between cultural concepts and values should be an essential component in the practice of medical health. Understand and respect beliefs contribute to understand the way of acting of the subjects; providing them with an adequate plan of action without interfering in their cultural traits would be the correct way to involve patients in health care and therefore obtain better benefits. The practice of medical care in China is divided into those who already accept advanced western medicine, while others maintain their roots in traditional Chinese medicine. Especially young people come first to receive medical attention; later if they consider that it does not work then they go to traditional medicine. This choice is not the same as in adults who only seek Western medicine when the traditional medicine does not work for them. For Chinese culture physical and mental health is defined through the balance between yin and yang . Stigma is associated with having a mentally ill family member. Many Chinese still consider that mental and physical disabilities are a part of life that should be hidden (Purnel 2013). Traditional Chinese medicine includes 5 basic substances: energy, blood, essence, spirit, body fluids. Acupuncture and moxibustion are used in many treatments. Acupuncture is the insertion of needles at precise 14 points along the flow system of the energy. Many of the same points can be used to apply pressure (acupressure) and massage (accumulation) to achieve relief of imbalances in the system. Moxibustion is the application of heat from different sources to several points. CHINESE AND GUATEMALAN HERITAGE. HEALTHCARE BELIEFS Herbal medicine is an important part of traditional chinese medicine. Herbal medicines are used to regulate the natural balance of the body and restore health, it has been used for centuries to treat most health conditions and as a preventative dietary supplement. The Chinese handle the pain by applying oils and massages, using heat, sleeping in the area of pain, relaxation, and aspirin. Families may be reluctant to allow autopsies because of their fear of being “cut” (Purnel 2013). Most accept blood transfusions, organ donations and organ transplants. Older health-care providers receive more respect than younger providers, and men usually receive more respect than women. Physicians receive the highest respect, followed closely by nurses with a university education. The search for medical attention among Guatemalans usually takes place in staircase style. When a health problem occurs first seek the advice of a mother, grandmother or another respected elder. If this approach is unsuccessful, then seek medical attention from popular healers. Three distinct health care systems exist in Guatemala: modern medicine, ladino folk medicine, indian folk medicine. Modern medicine refers to health care provided by educated physicians and nurses. Ladino folk medicine is provided by Ladino pharmacists, spiritualists, and lay healers. Mayan Indians seek medical care from Mayan shaman, herbalists, and comadronas (Purnel 2013) . Modern medical care can be the last resort because many fear hospitals. In Guatemala, when hospital care is necessary, patients are often seriously ill, resulting in death, which perpetuates the belief that hospitals are places where patients are going to die (Marshall 2016). Guatemalans often delay seeking health care until they are incapacitated by illness, disease, or injury. The preferred mode of treatment is medication administered by hypodermic injection; for the population in general, it is preferable the injections than the medicines taken via oral. CHINESE AND GUATEMALAN HERITAGE. HEALTHCARE BELIEFS Unlike the Chinese, the majority of Guatemalans fear venipuncture because they consider taking blood leaves the body without enough blood to keep them strong and healthy. Guatemalans tend to view health and illness in relation to their ability to perform duties associated with their roles. Pain and minor illnesses that do not impede functioning are tolerated. When a disease prevents the normal functioning required for their roles, then Guatemalans see it seriously. They have the belief that a serious illness is seen as a punishment from God rather than a lack of prevention or early detection, because of their habit of ignoring diseases in the hope that they will disappear on their own (Purnel 2013). Family members prefer to take care of their loved one at home if possible. As for the donation of organs, for the Guatemalan it is a disconcerting and fearful topic. The Guatemalan patient may think the health- care provider is asking them to consent to organ donation because they are going to die rather than understanding the context to which the question applies. Guatemalans have great respect and admiration for health-care providers. They are viewed as authority figures with clinical expertise. Guatemalans expect their health-care provider to have the appearance and manners of a professional (Purnel 2013). When this is not the case, Guatemalans lose confidence in the provider. Guatemalans are very private and are not accustomed to discussing issues and concerns openly. It may take a while to develop the trust and rapport. They fear disclosure may result in deportation or rejection. Patients also fear confidentiality will not be maintained in the health-care setting. Guatemalan women are usually very modest. They may refuse to discuss personal issues or receive an examination by a male health-care provider. A male Guatemalan patient may refuse a female health-care provider. Because Guatemalans dislike conflict, they may not actually refuse care instead they may withhold personal information due to discomfort with the health-care provider (Purnel 2013). CHINESE AND GUATEMALAN HERITAGE. HEALTHCARE BELIEFS The cultural differences are also evident between the Chinese and the Guatemalans; I could say that both cultures have more differences than similarities, as is the case of organ donations. While for the Chinese it seems to be appropriate, for the Guatemalans it seems to be a despised act. However, I believe that one of the characteristics that resemble each other is their acceptance of modern medicine after going to humanitarian resources such as family councils or traditional medicine. In summary, and without devaluing any belief, this fact affects health, especially the early detection of deadly diseases. CHINESE AND GUATEMALAN HERITAGE. HEALTHCARE BELIEFS References Purnell, L.D. & Paulanka, B.J. (2013). Transcultural Health Care. A Culturally Competent Approach (4th ed.) Petrovick, Tatiana. (2016). Five Reason Why the Guatemalan Health System is in Deep Crisis. Retrived from Marshall, Katherine. (2016). Faces of Health, Poverty, and Faith in Guatemala. Retrived from
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