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EPortfolio: Submission Reflection Document

EPortfolio: Submission Reflection Document

NSG 3150  Healthcare Informatics


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Week 7 – Unit 7


Please carefully review the NSG3150 Sample ePortfolio Reflection Form for Students 6.2018.pdf attached.

Process: For each nursing course in the RN to BSN program, you will upload at least one required artifact to your ePortfolio. The required artifact will be assigned by faculty and identified in the course syllabus. (Please review the Pharmacist interview attached to complete the BSN Reflection document). Along with the required artifact, students may also select additional course artifacts to demonstrate achievement of outcomes. For the required artifact, you will complete a Reflection Document analyzing how the assignment demonstrates achievement of the identified PSLO/GEC/Essential.


Reflection Criteria: In the Reflection Document, begin by reviewing the three sets of standards that form the foundation of your RN to BSN program: the Program Student Learning Outcomes (PSLOs), the General Education Competencies (GECs), and the BSN Essentials. Next, select at least one item from each of the three standard sets (PSLOs, GECs, and BSN Essentials) that correlates with the required artifact. In your reflection, do not focus on the entire course as a whole. Instead, focus your reflection on the knowledge, skills and attitudes associated with creating the required course artifact. There is no maximum number of PSLOs, GECs, and BSN Essentials you must select. However, at minimum, you are required to choose one PSLO, one GEC, and one BSN Essential (along with the specific outcomes related to the BSN Essential) that relate to your course artifact. Answer the questions at the end of the Reflection Document to explain/reflect/discuss/analyze how creating the course artifact helped you to demonstrate the PSLO(s), the GEC(s) and the Essential(s) you selected.


BSN Reflection Document


Instructions for completing this document

During your progression in the RN-BSN program, you will use this process of completing and uploading a reflection and artifact in your ePortfolio. This activity is meant to demonstrate how you have achieved the Program Student Learning Outcomes, General Education Competencies, and AACN’s Baccalaureate Essentials through all the work you do in each course.


Please review and click in the checkbox, under each of the headings: Program Student Learning Outcomes (PSLO’s), General Education Competencies (GEC) and the AACN Essentials. Please follow the specific instructions under each of these headings, demonstrated through your assigned course artifact. For each artifact included in your portfolio, submit one reflection form. EPortfolio: Submission Reflection Document

Please note that not every artifact will cover all standards, so you may check one or multiple boxes under each of the three standards (PSLO’s, GEC and AACN Baccalaureate Essentials). However, you are required to reflect on at least one of the boxes you check for each standard. Each course reflection contains nine questions except for NSG4150 where students will complete additional questions 10-17 on Art and Science courses; and, NSG 4850 where students answer questions 18-24 only and complete the program reflection section


Once you have completed the Reflection Document, please click on the “Submit” button. This will save your progress and bring you to the list of your Reflection Documents, where you can download a PDF to submit in the assignment dropbox.


NOTE: Each time that you click the “Next” button, your work is saved. If you are at a stopping point in the document, be sure to click on the “Next” button. When you return to the Reflection Document, select “Edit” to make changes or to pick up where you left off.


  1. Review your assigned course artifact and check at least one of the following BSN Program Student Learning Outcomes (PSLO) demonstrated through your artifact:


  • Synthesize knowledge from the arts and sciences to form a foundation for the practice of professional nursing.
  • Provide holistic, culturally competent care for individuals, families, and populations through health promotion and disease prevention across the lifespan and healthcare continuum.
  • Integrate professional values and behaviors when delivering standards-based nursing care to diverse patients and populations.
  • Develop leadership skills to provide and continuously improve the delivery of safe, patient-centered quality healthcare.
  • Incorporate best practices and the most current evidence when using clinical reasoning to make practice decisions.
  • Incorporate the use of information systems and technology in order to communicate, manage knowledge, mitigate error, and support decision-making.
  • Integrate effective communication and collaboration skills to improve patient satisfaction and health outcomes.


  1. Discuss one PSLO that you are reflecting on and explain how the assigned course artifact demonstrates your progression toward achieving the PSLO you checked above. Relate two class activities that helped you achieve the selected PSLO.
  2. Analyze what you have learned by completing the assigned course artifact. What areas of growth or future learning needs must be met to meet the PSLO(s) for your baccalaureate education?
  3. Review the assigned course artifact and check at least one of the following General Education Competencies (GEC) demonstrated through your artifact:
  • Cultural Competence: Learners will demonstrate an understanding of philosophies that represent social, emotional, and behavioral attributes of society and individuals.
  • Communication: Learners will demonstrate an understanding of the views of others and communicate in a professional manner.
  • Critical Thinking: Learners will demonstrate the ability to draw conclusions based on evidence and consider prior knowledge, context, and perspectives in predicting implications or consequences.
  • Information Literacy: Learners will demonstrate the ability to identify, evaluate and apply information to accomplish a specific purpose.
  • Quantitative Literacy: Learners will demonstrate the ability to report, calculate, and analyze quantitative date.
  • Scientific Literacy: Learners will gain the ability to read with understanding scientific content and engage in a dialogue about scientific issues. EPortfolio: Submission Reflection Document


  1. Select one GEC and reflect on it by making specific reference to the course and your artifact as you explain how the assigned course artifact demonstrates your progression toward achieving the GEC you checked above. Relate two class activities that helped you achieve the selected GEC.
  2. Review the assigned course artifact and check at least one standard listed under the nine BSN Essentials demonstrated through your artifact (only one standard under one BSN essential is required to be selected):

Essential I: Liberal Education for Baccalaureate Generalist Nursing Practice.

  • Physical, natural, life science, math, social sciences.
  • Fine art, performing art, humanities

Essential II: Basic Organizational and Systems Leadership for Quality Care and Patient Safety.

  • Demonstrate knowledge and skills in leadership.
  • Describe quality improvement.
  • Advocate for patient safety.
  • Demonstrate caring, effective communication with all constituents.
  • Describe and navigate in complex organizational systems.

Essential III: Scholarship for Evidence Based Practice (Professional nursing practice is grounded in the translation of current evidence into one’s practice).

  • Provide evidence-based nursing interventions.
  • Delineate interrelationships among theory, practice, research.
  • Describe the elements of the research process and application.
  • Advocate for protection of human subjects.
  • Evaluate credibility of information.
  • Participate in retrieval, appraisal, and synthesis of evidence.

Essential IV: Information Management and Application of Patient Care Technology.

  • Understand information management and the impact upon patient outcomes.
  • Employ a variety of patient care technologies.
  • Demonstrate effectiveness in telecommunication technologies.
  • Apply decision-making tools to support safe practice.
  • Use CIS systems to document interventions and improve patient outcomes.
  • Evaluate data to inform the delivery of care.
  • Maintain ethical standards related to data and patient rights.
  • Participate in evaluation of information systems.

Essential V: Health Care Policy, Finance, and Regulatory Environments

  • Understand healthcare policies and financial implications.
  • Explore regulatory environments and the impact on healthcare.
  • Understand global trends.
  • Be familiar with legislative and regulatory process in healthcare.
  • Explore socio-cultural, economic, legal influence on practice.
  • Describe role of regulatory agencies and impact on patient outcome, quality, and practice.
  • Discuss healthcare policy related to access, equity, affordability, and social justice.
  • Use an ethical framework to evaluate healthcare policies.
  • Participate in political processes that influence healthcare policy.

Essential VI: Interprofessional Communication and Collaboration for Improving Patient Health Care Outcomes

  • Understand multi-disciplinary roles of the healthcare team.
  • Employ effective communication to resolve conflict, foster teamwork.
  • Advocate for high quality care as a member of the healthcare team.

Essential VII: Clinical Prevention and Population Health.

  • Assess protective and predictive factors, including genetics, which influence health.
  • Assess health from a holistic perspective, including values, attitudes of families, groups, communities, and populations.
  • Promote health, manage illness.
  • Use EBP to guide health teaching, screening, and counseling, throughout lifespan.
  • Assess health, healthcare, and emergency preparedness needs of a defined population.
  • Develop an intervention plan that considers health, resources, prevention of illness, injury, disability, and premature death.
  • Participate in prevention and population-focused interventions related to effectiveness, efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and equity.
  • Advocate for social justice, including health of vulnerable populations. EPortfolio: Submission Reflection Document

Essential VIII: Professionalism and Professional Values

  • Demonstrate professional standards of moral, ethical, and legal conduct.
  • Exhibit accountability, role modeling professional values, professionalism, and integrity.
  • Identify personal, professional, and environmental risks that impact personal and professional choices.
  • Examine practice for promotion of social justice.
  • Articulate value of professional growth and development and lifelong learning.
  • Protect patient privacy and confidentiality.

Essential IX: Baccalaureate Generalist Nursing Practice.

  • Demonstrate caring and health techniques that promote a therapeutic nurse-patient relationship.
  • Conduct assessment across populations and lifespan.
  • Recognize constructs of genetics on health, prevention, screening, diagnostics, prognostics, treat.
  • Provide holistic care across the lifespan.
  • Communicate effectively with patients, families, and healthcare team.
  • Provide compassionate, patient-centered, evidence-based care.
  • Provide nursing care based on evidence that contributes to safe and high-quality patient outcomes.
  1. Select one of the BSN Essentials you have chosen and reflect on the relationship between the essential chosen, your learning, and the course artifact. Relate two class activities that helped you achieve the selected BSN Essential.
  2. Describe what you have learned by completing the assigned course artifact. What areas of growth or future learning needs must be met to meet all of the program learning outcomes for your baccalaureate education?
  3. Describe how your learning and achievement of these standards will impact your future role as a BSN nurse.




Grading of ePortfolio Assignments


Each ePortfolio assignment will be a graded using an assigned grading rubric. A grade of 100% is the required passing score for all ePortfolio assignments. Refer to the assignment rubric. If a revision is required to achieve a passing score, resubmission of an ePortfolio assignment must be completed within 72 hours of receiving your instructor feedback. Students are to refer to the ePortfolio tutorials for further guidance as needed.


All ePortfolio course requirements must be met in order to receive a passing end of course grade. As per the RN- BSN program incomplete policy, students have two weeks to submit the required coursework or the incomplete will be changed to a failing grade (F).



ePortfolio Rubric

Criteria Excellent Unsatisfactory
Submission of URL/Link to ePortfolio Home Page

• URL (link) to the ePortfolio is submitted to the assignment drop box. Submitted URL leads directly to the ePortfolio Home Page. The ePortfolio contents are viewable.


The ePortfolio submission meets all criteria.
15 pts
No assignment submitted or submitted URL is not functional/does not allow for viewing any portion of the ePortfolio.
0 pts
Home Section

·         Welcome page contains a welcome message and optional upload of a professional photograph.

·         Welcome page contains a professional biography to include a summary of work experience, academic background, and professional goals.

CLSOs: 3, 5; AACN IV

The ePortfolio submission meets all criteria.
15 pts
The ePortfolio submission does not meet all of the criteria.
0 pts
Creation of Course Section (e.g., NSG 3050)

·         Course Section (e.g., NSG 3050) is present.

·         Course Section (e.g., NSG 3050) is labeled using

correct prefix and number.


The ePortfolio submission meets all criteria.
10 pts
The ePortfolio submission does not meet all of the criteria.

0 pts

Creation of Course Artifact Page and Upload of Assigned Course Artifact

·         One course artifact page is present in the current course section (e.g., NSG 3050) and labeled as Artifact. EPortfolio: Submission Reflection Document

·         One assigned course artifact document is uploaded to the current course artifact page.

·         Course artifact was not linked from Dropbox



The ePortfolio submission meets all criteria.
15 pts
The ePortfolio submission does not meet all of the criteria.
0 pts
Completion of Reflection

·         1 selection is made in each subsection (the PSLOs, GECs, BSN Essentials) of the reflection form.

·         All narrative prompts are completely addressed.

·         One course reflection page is present in

the current course section (e.g., NSG 3050) and

labeled as Reflection.

·         One completed PDF course reflection document is

uploaded to the current course reflection page.


The ePortfolio submission meets all criteria.
25 pts
The ePortfolio submission does not meet all of the criteria.

0 pts

ePortfolio Organization

·         Free of blank or duplicate course sections.

·         Free of blank or duplicate pages within the course


·         Evidence of previous submissions organized in

one ePortfolio.


The ePortfolio submission meets all criteria.
20 pts
The ePortfolio submission does not meet all of the criteria.
0 pts
*100% required to pass
100 0






Pharmacist Interview


Interviewer: Santiago Valdes

Pharmacist: Edgar Lavile

Pharmacy Facility: HCA Mercy Hospital

NSG 3150 Healthcare Informatics

Galen College of Nursing

Jessica Cammidge

July 23, 2023

Pharmacist Interview

Part I: The Interview Transcript

Interviewer: Good morning; thank you for speaking with me. I would like to ask you few questions about the technology used in your pharmacy.

Pharmacist: Of course, happy to help. What would you like to know?

Interviewer: What type of technology does your pharmacy utilize?

Pharmacist: We utilize Automated Dispensing Units, also called ADUs Cabinets. These computerized systems store, dispense, and track medication inventory.

Interviewer: How does your technology enhance internal and external communications between pharmacists, technicians, physicians, advanced medical care providers, and nurses?

Pharmacist: ADUs have built-in communication features that allow pharmacists and pharmacy technicians to communicate with other healthcare professionals electronically. For example, if there is question about particular medication order, pharmacist sends message to the physician or nurse through the system. It facilitates quick and efficient communication, reducing need for phone calls or physical paperwork.

Interviewer: That sounds very convenient. Can you describe the process from when the pharmacy receives an order to when the medication is dispensed?

Pharmacist: Sure. When we receive an order, it is entered into our pharmacy system and sent to the ADUs. The medication is then dispensed from the ADU based on the order. The pharmacist or pharmacy technician retrieves medication from the ADU, performs final check to ensure accuracy, and then labels and packages the medication for the patient. EPortfolio: Submission Reflection Document

Interviewer: W hat are some of the processes or policies that are implemented to ensure patient safety?

Pharmacist: We have many processes and policies to ensure patient safety. First, ADUs are equipped with barcode scanning technology, so medications are scanned at various points to verify accuracy and prevent medication errors. Second, our pharmacy team undergoes regular training and education on medication safety practices. We have protocols in place for double-checking and verifying medications. We also have systems for identifying and addressing medication interactions or allergies. In addition, our pharmacy follows strict quality control measures to ensure that all medications are stored and handled properly.

Interviewer: What challenges related to technology and electronic information use have you experienced? What solutions have you implemented, or changes have you made in your practice to address these challenges?

Pharmacist: One challenge we have faced is connectivity issues between our pharmacy system and ADUs. Sometimes, there are delays or discrepancies in the information being transmitted, causing confusion or errors. To address this, we have implemented regular system checks and maintenance to ensure optimal connectivity. We also have backup systems and manual processes for cases when technology malfunctions.

Interviewer: How has informatics helped and/or hindered patient education and awareness?

Pharmacist: Informatics has greatly helped patient education and awareness. Using technology, we can provide patients with detailed information about their medications, like dosing instructions, potential side effects, and interactions. The information is readily available on patient portals or mobile apps, making it easily accessible for patients. However, one challenge we have encountered is ensuring patients understand and utilize technology to access information. Some patients cannot be comfortable or familiar with using digital platforms. We offer alternative options such as printed educational materials or in-person consultations with our pharmacists in these cases.

Part 2 Integrate the Findings from the Literature

Automated Dispensing Units (ADUs)

Automated dispensing cabinets are computerized drug storage devices or cabinets that allow medications to be stored and dispensed near the point of care while controlling and tracking drug distribution (Wai et al., 2022). The most prominent manufacturers of these units are companies like Pyxis, Omnicell, and Cerner. ADUs usually employ barcode technology to ensure accurate dispensing.


Pharmacy Management Systems

These software solutions help pharmacies improve operational efficiency, reduce errors, and enhance patient care. They serve as platform for digital organization, managing patient data, inventory, prescriptions, etc. They are integrated with electronic health records (EHRs) and ADUs for streamlined operations (Saha & Ray, 2019). Examples of these systems are Rx30, Liberty Software, and Pioneers.

Patient Portals and Mobile Apps:

Patient portals are secure online websites that give patients 24-hour access to personal health information from anywhere with Internet connection. They connect with EHR, allow patients to access their records and test results and sometimes communicate with their healthcare providers. There are different patient portals, some provided by healthcare institutions and others being standalone products like MyChart or Patient Fusion. Mobile health apps have taken patient education and medication adherence to another level. Apps like Medisafe or My Meds remind patients when to take their medication and provide valuable information about drug interactions and side effects.

Applications of ADUs

ADUs reduce medication errors by ensuring accurate medication dispensing through barcode scanning technology. A study published in the American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy found that barcode-assisted medication order entry and checking systems significantly reduced potential for wrong drugs, dose, and wrong-patient errors.

ADUs also promote workflow efficiency and time-saving in pharmacy practice. A review published in the Journal of Pharmacy Practice highlighted that ADUs streamline medication distribution processes, improve medication inventory management, and reduce medication turnaround times (Muhamad Azim Mazlan et al., 2022). The automation provided by ADUs allows pharmacy staff to focus more on patient care activities and reduce time spent on manual tasks like medication dispensing and inventory checks. Electronic systems and informatics play a crucial role in patient education and awareness. Electronic medication information systems entailing patient portals and mobile apps have potential to improve patient understanding and adherence to medication regimens. Through these platforms, patients can easily access detailed medication information, such as dosing instructions, potential side effects, and drug interactions. This enhances patient education, empowers patients to be actively involved in their healthcare, and improves medication adherence and health outcomes.

Potential challenges associated by ADUs

Potential challenges and limitations associated with use of technology in pharmacy practice are Connectivity issues between pharmacy systems and ADUs. Connectivity creates delays or discrepancies in information transmission. This can be mitigated through regular system checks and maintenance. In addition, not all patients can be comfortable or familiar with using digital platforms for accessing medication information. Pharmacies must offer alternative options, such as printed educational materials or one-on-one consultations with pharmacists, to ensure patients can access important medication information.

Part 3 Summary

In interview analysis, pharmacist working at pharmacy utilizing Automated Dispensing Units (ADUs) provides insights into technology used in their practice. ADUs are computerized systems that store, dispense, and track medication inventory. This summary will explore uses, functions, pros, and cons of ADUs, and highlight positive and negative aspects of technology used by the pharmacist.

Elaboration on ADUs

Automated dispensing cabinets are essential to modern healthcare facilities, providing convenient, efficient, and secure medication storage and distribution methods. They are designed to be placed near point of care, allowing healthcare professionals easy access to necessary medications, and ensuring accuracy and safety (Batson et al., 2020). Key feature of ADUs is ability to control and track drug distribution. Healthcare professionals can simply input their identification credentials when medication is needed to access cabinet. It ensures that only authorized personnel have access to medications, reducing risk of medication errors and theft. ADUs utilize barcode technology to validate medication being dispensed, ensuring accuracy.  Major manufacturers of ADUs are Pyxis, Omnicell, and Cerner. The companies offer range of options and configurations to suit needs of different healthcare settings. Some ADUs are designed for general medication storage and distribution, while others are tailored for specific areas or specialties, like operating rooms or emergency departments. EPortfolio: Submission Reflection Document

Uses and functions of ADU

Automated Dispensing Units (ADUs) play crucial role in modern healthcare facilities by improving medication safety and workflow efficiency. These innovative systems employ barcode scanning technology to verify accuracy of medication dispensing, reducing medication errors and enhancing patient safety (Cortes et al., 2019). In addition, ADUs include communication features that facilitate quick and efficient communication between healthcare professionals hence streamlining medication distribution processes.

Pros of ADUs

Enhanced Patient Safety

Benefit of ADUs is their ability to enhance patient safety. Medication errors can have severe consequences, leading to patient harm or death. ADUs play substantial role in reducing errors by employing barcode scanning technology. When prescribing or dispensing medications, healthcare professionals scan barcode on medication package and compare it with electronic medication orders. Suppose there is mismatch, alert is triggered, indicating potential medication error. Verification process reduces potential for wrong drugs, doses, and wrong-patient errors, ensuring that patients receive correct medications.

Workflow Efficiency

ADUs streamline medication distribution processes and improve workflow efficiency in healthcare facilities. ADUs simplify and expedite medication distribution process, saving time for healthcare professionals by automating medication dispensing. Pharmacists and pharmacy technicians can spend less time manually counting and packaging medications, allowing them to focus on patient care activities. ADUs improve medication inventory management. Systems can track medication levels in real time, providing accurate information about stock levels and expiration dates. It allows healthcare facilities to optimize medication inventory and reduce waste. Pharmacists can identify medications to be restocked or reordered, ensuring medications are always available when needed. ADUs also generate reports and analytics on medication usage, providing insights guiding purchasing decisions.

Quick Communication

ADUs are built-in features promoting quick and efficient communication between healthcare professionals. Communication features eliminate need for phone calls or physical paperwork, reducing risk of miscommunication and speeding up medication distribution process. For example, if pharmacists identify medication order issue, they can communicate with relevant healthcare professionals through ADU system. Instant communication allows for quick resolution of medication discrepancies and prevents delays or errors in medication administration. ADUs also facilitate communication between pharmacists and pharmacy technicians, ensuring that medications are accurately and efficiently dispensed.

Integration with Electronic Health Records (EHR)

ADUs can be integrated with Electronic Health Records (EHR) systems to enhance communication and workflow efficiency. Healthcare professionals access patient information, medication orders, and relevant data from ADU through integration. It eliminates need for healthcare professionals to search for patient records in separate systems, saving time and reducing risk of errors.

Cons of ADUs

Connectivity Issues: The pharmacist highlighted connectivity issues between pharmacy system and ADUs as potential challenges. Delays or discrepancies in information transmission led to confusion or errors. Regular system checks and maintenance are essential to address connectivity issue.

Patient Adaptation to Technology: Not all patients are comfortable or familiar with using digital platforms to access medication information. It hinders patient education and awareness. Alternative options like printed educational materials or in-person consultations can address the challenge.

Cost: Implementing and maintaining ADUs can be costly for pharmacies and patients. Pharmacies need to invest in upgrading their technological infrastructure to support ADUs, and patients need to purchase devices or incur additional fees for accessing and using ADU platform.

Privacy and Security Concerns: ADUs store and transmit sensitive patient information, like medication details and personal data. It raises concerns about data breaches, identity theft, and unauthorized access.

Technical Issues: ADUs can experience technical issues like glitches, software malfunctions, or hardware failures. The issues disrupt flow of information and compromise patient safety. Regular system maintenance and prompt technical support are necessary to minimize the risks.

Support and Assistance: Some patients require support or assistance when using ADUs, especially those with limited technical skills or disabilities. Pharmacies should provide adequate training and resources to help patients navigate ADU platform effectively. In addition, providing dedicated helpdesk or helpline can assist patients in resolving their issues or queries. EPortfolio: Submission Reflection Document


Positive and Negative Aspects of the Technology Used:

Positive Aspects

Improved Medication Safety: Use of barcode scanning technology in Automated Dispensing Units (ADUs) greatly reduces risk of medication errors, enhancing patient safety. Healthcare professionals can ensure that right medication is being dispensed to the right patient (Zheng et al., 2020) by scanning barcodes on medication labels.

Workflow Efficiency: ADUs streamline medication distribution processes, allowing pharmacy staff time to focus on critical tasks. Automation eliminates manual tasks like counting pills and labeling medications, allowing staff to spend time on patient care activities. It improves workflow efficiency and allows for more personalized patient interactions.

Reduced Dispensing and Waiting Times: ADUs can dispense medication quickly and accurately, reducing patient wait times. It is beneficial in busy healthcare settings where high volume of patients needs their medications.

Negative Aspects

Connectivity Challenges: The pharmacist mentioned connectivity issues between pharmacy system and ADUs. In some cases, there can be delays or discrepancies in information transmission, leading to medication errors or delays in medication dispensing. Regular system maintenance and checks are necessary to mitigate the challenge.

Patient Adaptation to Technology: Not all patients are comfortable or familiar with using digital platforms or barcode scanning technology to access medication information. It hinders patient education and awareness about their medications. Some patients struggle to understand how to use technology or prefer more traditional methods of receiving medication information.


The interview with pharmacist provides valuable insights into technology used in pharmacy practice, specifically utilization of Automated Dispensing Units (ADUs). ADUs offer numerous benefits, like enhanced patient safety, improved workflow efficiency, and quick communication between healthcare professionals. Challenges related to connectivity and patient adaptation to technology should be addressed to ensure optimal utilization and patient satisfaction. Technology used in the pharmacy enhances medication safety, operational efficiency, and patient care, highlighting role technology plays in modern pharmacy practice.




Batson, S., Herranz, A., Rohrbach, N., Canobbio, M., Mitchell, S. A., & Bonnabry, P. (2020). Automation of in-hospital pharmacy dispensing: a systematic review. European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 28(2), 58–64. EPortfolio: Submission Reflection Document

Cortes, D., Leung, J., Ryl, A., & Lieu, J. (2019). Pharmacy Informatics: Where Medication Use and Technology Meet. The Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 72(4), 320–326.

Muhamad Azim Mazlan, Siti Fatimah Salleh, Mohd, & Razak, A. (2022). Design and development of automated dispensing machine as medical device-based application: A review. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 236(18), 10033–10050.

Saha, E., & Ray, P. K. (2019). Modeling and analysis of inventory management systems in healthcare: A review and reflections. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 137, 106051.

Wai, D. F., Merchant, R. F., & Donneyong, M. M. (2022). Optimizing Medication Distribution in Automated Dispensing Cabinets: Dashboard Implementation and Evaluation. Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 089719002211181.

Zheng, W. Y., Lichtner, V., Van Dort, B. A., & Baysari, M. T. (2020). The impact of introducing automated dispensing cabinets, barcode medication administration, and closed-loop electronic medication management systems on work processes and safety of controlled medications in hospitals: A systematic review. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 17(5), 832–841. EPortfolio: Submission Reflection Document

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