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ENVSOCTY 2OC3 McMaster University Climate Change & Greenhouse Gases Discussion

ENVSOCTY 2OC3 McMaster University Climate Change & Greenhouse Gases Discussion

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Please make sure that your responses/opinions are civil as well as backed up by at least onesources of evidence. Sources can include (but are not limited to),scholarly articles, historical texts, and/or news reports (do not useyour course textbook nor class notes as these are not acceptablereferences). Referencing style should be APA.This is meant to be a professional discussion so please writeprofessionally. You are to answer one of the following questions.

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You should be response to these two arguments. Yourresponse should be no longer than 150 words each (not including references).The idea here is to be concise with each thought being impact andclear.

1.

Climatechange has undeniably created long-term weather-related problems due togreenhouse gases (GHGs) trapping heat in the atmosphere (David SuzukiFoundation, 2020, paras. 1-2). With the high levels of GHGs housed inour atmosphere (David Suzuki Foundation, 2020, para. 4), it seems nearlyimpossible to control heat waves contributing to human health (Shartovaet al., 2018, p. 522). ENVSOCTY 2OC3 McMaster University Climate Change & Greenhouse Gases Discussion

Physicalhealth is at risk as temperatures in Canada continue to rise as aresult of increased amounts of GHGs in our atmosphere (U.S. GlobalChange Research Program, 2016, para. 1). This raises concern astemperatures in southern parts of Quebec have risen by approximately onedegree Celsius since 1950, and the expectation is that this patternwill continue for the next few decades (Connolly, 2016, para. 27). Theconsequence to this is further air pollution (Connolly, 2016, para. 28),which is associated with health conditions such as cardiovasculardisease and stroke (Government of Canada, 2019, para. 15). Alsoimportant to note is that according to Buka et al. (2019) from theCanadian Pediatric Society, they further address how the weakened immunesystems of children cannot cope with the ground-level ozone, furtherdeteriorating organ systems (para. 10). Therefore, it is not just theadult population affected by the poorer air quality, rather thepediatric population as well.

Quebecand Ontario have been found to have high amounts of ticks responsiblefor carrying Lyme disease (Connolly, 2016, para. 30). With temperaturesin Canada still on the rise, the environment becomes more favourable forticks, and this results in an increase in tick-borne diseases (Bouchardet al., 2019, p. 82). Warmer environments increase survival of ticks,but they also increase the duration of time people spend outdoors,increasing their risk of exposure to ticks (Bouchard et al., 2019, p.82).

Variationsin temperature have also affected mental health of Canadians (Wiley,2019, p. 187). Climate change has the ability to cause natural disasters(ie. wildfires/drought), and living through these events can havenegative outcomes in mental health (Wiley, 2019, p. 187). Take forexample British Columbia – a state of emergency was announced in 2017and 2018 for the forest fires (Rabson, 2020, para. 9), where healthconditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, andanxiety were likely to occur following the event (Wiley, 2019, p. 187).Understanding the impact of climate change is vital as our healthbecomes a major consequence of this.

References

Bouchard,C., Dibernardo, A., Koffi, J., Wood, H., Leighton, P. A., &Lindsay, L. R. (2019). Increased risk of tick-borne diseases withclimate and environmental changes. Canadian Communicable Disease Report, 45(4), 81-90. https://doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v45i04a02

Buka, I., & Shea, K. M. (2019, August 14). Global climate change and health in Canadian children. Canadian Pediatric Society. https://www.cps.ca/en/documents/position/global-climate-change

Connolly, A. (2019, September 26). Here’s how climate change will impact the region where you live. Global News. https://globalnews.ca/news/5918981/climate-change-impact-across-canada/

David Suzuki Foundation. (2020). What is climate change? https://davidsuzuki.org/what-you-can-do/what-is-climate-change/ ENVSOCTY 2OC3 McMaster University Climate Change & Greenhouse Gases Discussion

Government of Canada. (2019, September 6). Climate change and health: health effects. https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/climate-change-health.html

Rabson, M. (2020, January 7). Climate change driving up risk of wildfires in Canada: fire experts. The Canadian Press. https://globalnews.ca/news/6378861/australia-canada-wildfires-climate-change-risk/

Shartova,N., Shaposhnikov, D., Konstantinov, P., & Revich, B. (2018).Cardiovascular mortality during heat waves in temperate climate: anassociation with bioclimatic indices. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 28(5), 522-534. https://doi-org.libaccess.lib.mcmaster.ca/10.1080/09603123.2018.1495322

U.S. Global Change Research Program. (2016). The impacts of climate change on human health in the united states: a scientific assessment. https://health2016.globalchange.gov/

Wiley, E. (2019). The unseen impacts of climate change on mental health. British Columbia Medical Journal, 61(4), 187-188.

2.

Thecurrent Covid-19 global pandemic has shut borders and restricted travelinto Canada. The most notable impacts of closed borders have been tradeand labour restrictions, contributing to detrimental economic impacts.Although there are certain exceptions for agricultural labour and goodstransportation, the negative implications of border closures areevident.

Public health restrictions have meant that only ‘essentialtraffic’ is permitted through Canadian borders, resulting in significanteconomic impacts. For example, transport regulations have resulted inlong wait times at the border, therefore damaging fruits, vegetables,and other perishable goods. In addition, long wait times have resultedin crowding and delayed shipping of other trades (Barichello, 2020,p.11). Delays in shipping and trade can impact business processes andproduction. The Canadian fruits and vegetables market has been evidentlyimpacted as a result of being unable to import U.S. produce due toborder restrictions. Canadians have become limited in the variety oftheir produce in grocery stores (Richards & Rickards, 2020).Canadians are used to different varieties of fresh produce throughoutthe year, so limiting their options can result in customerdissatisfaction and impacts to grocery stores’ and market sales. Inaddition, Canadian food processing plants rely on imported raw materialsfrom the U.S. and other countries. Border closures have contributed tosupply chain impacts, such as ingredient and packaging materialsshortages for processing plants (Hailu, 2020, p.166).

Border closures can also contribute to disruptions in theCanadian beef sector. According to James Rude, Canada does not have thephysical capacity to accommodate all domestically produced beef. Rudecompares the current Covid-19 impacts to the cattle industry to the 2003border closures between the U.S and Canada. During the second and thirdquarters of 2003, Canadian cattle prices fell by 47%, due to trade andborder restrictions between the two countries. Similarly, borderrestrictions between the U.S. and Canada due to Covid-19 can result inthe Canadian sector having nowhere to sell generated cattle products(2020, p.4). As a result, market disruptions are likely to occur,contributing to revenue and price impacts for Canada’s profitable cattleeconomy. ENVSOCTY 2OC3 McMaster University Climate Change & Greenhouse Gases Discussion

Furthermore, quarantine and border restrictions haveimpacted migrant labour entry into Canada. Processing plants andagricultural facilities have been impacted due to labour shortages andlack of domestic labour to complete agricultural and production jobs(Barichello, 2020, p. 8-9). Labour shortages host a variety of problemsfor Canadian businesses. For example, food processing plantsexperiencing labour shortages have needed to implement overtime pay,overtime hours, incentives to work, and paid leave due to illness. MapleLeaf has been providing hourly staff with $80 per week additionalsupport payment in addition to regular overtime and pay during thepandemic, due to labour shortages (Hailu, 2020, p.166). As a result,border closures have resulted in increasing costs and increasing risksfor Canadian businesses.

Overall, it is evident that there have been severaleconomic impacts due to border closures and labour restrictions inCanada due to Covid-19, including impacts to the raw materials and foodsupply chain, labour supply, Canadian businesses, and Canadianconsumers.

Works Cited

Barichello, R. (2020). The COVID?19 pandemic: Anticipatingits effects on Canada’s agricultural trade. Canadian Journal ofAgricultural Economics/Revue canadienne d’agroeconomie.

Hailu, G. (2020). Economic thoughts on COVID?19 forCanadian food processors. Canadian Journal of AgriculturalEconomics/Revue canadienne d’agroeconomie.

Richards, T. J., & Rickard, B. (2020). COVID?19 impacton fruit and vegetable markets. Canadian Journal of AgriculturalEconomics/Revue canadienne d’agroeconomie.

Rude, J. (2020). COVID?19 and the Canadian cattle/beef sector: Somepreliminary analysis. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics/Revuecanadienne d’agroeconomie. ENVSOCTY 2OC3 McMaster University Climate Change & Greenhouse Gases Discussion

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